The Dunning-Kruger effect is a cognitive bias in which people mistakenly overestimate their knowledge or abilities in a particular area. This tends to happen because a lack of self-awareness prevents them from assessing their own skills accurately. The Dunning-Kruger effect concept is based on a 1999 paper by Cornell University psychologists David Dunning and Justin Kruger. The pair tested participants on their logic, grammar, and sense of humor, and found that those who performed in the bottom quartile rated their skills well above average. For example, those in the 12th percentile self-rated their skill, on average, at the 62nd percentile.


Samuel P. Huntington is a conservative Harvard professor, who can be considered the foremost type of armchair theorist. He usually formulated enormous, greatly simplified theories suitable for the political and social demands of the time, offering easy application to the use of popular world politics for US decision-makers and especially for the media. Before “civilization”, it created, for example, the theory of the “wave of democratization”, which gradually led to the acceptance of a more universal liberal democracy. This kind of ability for academic opinion leadership that Huntington possesses certainly cannot but be admired. However, for the same reason, his…


Either you have passed several semester or years, or you have just started your new in a college. There are so many things to think about in college that students sometimes forget the rasons that they are here in the first place-to learn. College students have the opportunity to take many interesting classes, but it can be hard to get the most out of them.

The majority of the college students who are called successful students achieve their success by getting the most out of their college classes through developing and applying effective study habits. …


Do you ever feel left out when your classmates are actively engaged in classroom discussion because you’re having trouble asking the right questions?

Are you tired of always having to passively accept the things you see or hear? Or maybe you’ve just received a ‘lacks in-depth discussion’ comment on your essay assignment? Strengthening your reasoning and getting the most of the information you receive in class requires perseverance and practice.

I’m not an expert but, i will tell you how to develop clearer thinking based on my experience so you can get the most of your reading and discussion tasks…


Reading critically is all about examining and deconstructing text. In order to master that, being patient and focus reading is essential, which is why this process takes time. Critical reading skill requires you to focus on a certain part of a written text which involves analysis, reflection, evaluation and making judgements (Cottrel, 2005, pp.147). It is also a matter of identifying significant parts and examining how those parts are related to each other (Wall, 2005).

Elements of Critical Reading:

1. Difficult Reading Texts
Difficult texts can be caused by three different reasons:
• Unfamiliarity
• Something is missing or left out from the text
• The text…


One of the important things in reading comprehension is the ability to differentiate between facts and opinions.

The books, journals, newspaper, or magazines that you read contain mixture of facts and the author’s opinion. Things that have happened, is true, and exist are called facts. However, things that are believed to have happened, to be true, and to exist are considered as opinion. Facts associate with what we know while opinions refer to what we believe.


Critical thinking requires us to evaluate reasons provided in an argument. The evaluation is crucial to assess the acceptability of reasoning and to prevent us from logical fallacies. Browne and Keely (2007) define fallacies as deceptive reasoning or logical mistakes derived from false assumptions. Fallacies are tricks to produce misleading reasons in which the information provided seems logically connected to conclusion.

1. AD HOMINEM FALLACY
Ad hominem is a Latin phrase meaning “against the man or against the person”. It is a fallacy because the reasons provided do not aim to address a person’s ideas but to insult or attack the…


Asumsikan jika anda memiliki 10 kg emas. Tentunya, tidak mungkin anda akan membawa emas itu kemana-mana untuk membeli segala kebutuhan dasar seperti beras, minyak makan, dan pakaian bukan? Oleh karena itu, anda membawa "cek" yang menyatakan "saya memiliki 10 kg emas yang tersimpan di bank." dan cek tersebut anda gunakan untuk bertransaksi. Nilai yang ada transaksikan bukan diatas kertas cek tersebut tapi di emas yang disimpan di bank, yang berpindah bukan emas secara fisik, melainkan KEPEMILIKANNYA.

Sistem tersebut dinamai "Commodity Money" atau "Gold Standard" dan sebelum tahun 1971, sistem keuangan di Indonesia dengan menggunakan Gold Standard memiliki daya beli yang…


Pada 30 Januari 1968, perayaan tahun baru China atau yang dikenal dengan Lunar New Year. Di Vietnam, hari perayaan yang menjadi hari libur ini dikenal dengan nama Tet, yang menurut tradisinya ini adalah waktu yang tepat bagi pasukan Vietnam Utara untuk mengumumkan dan melakukan gencatan senjata. Oleh karena itu, hari ini menjadi dasar bagi beberapa serangan kejutan yang dikenal sebagai "Tet Offensive" oleh pasukan Vietnam Utara melawan Amerika Serikat.

Yang terjadi selanjutnya menimbulkan pertanyaan menarik. Terlepas dari setiap serangan balasan yang dilakukan pasukan Amerika dan hanya menyebabkabkan beberapa ribu korban, sedangkan pasukan Vietnam Utara kehilangan 35.000 pasukan!. …


Since one of the primary things I’m selling, of course, is my time, the faster I’m able to identify the people who have a sense of urgency, the better.

You’ll know prospects are serious when:

• They want to address their leadership challenges — now.

• They are coachable.

• They are willing to pay for the value you offer.

If they meet the above criteria, the more likely it is you’ll both find the conversation mutually beneficial.

Over time, I’ve found a few “tells” that indicate when it’s time to move on. I’m not talking about the obvious ones…

Iqbal Maulana

you named it, i'll do it.

Get the Medium app

A button that says 'Download on the App Store', and if clicked it will lead you to the iOS App store
A button that says 'Get it on, Google Play', and if clicked it will lead you to the Google Play store